Bose, Netaji Subhash

Born On 23 Jan, 1897 at 11.58 a.m

Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945)[h] was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India,[i][j][k] but whose attempts during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.[l][m][n] The honorific Netaji (Hindustani: “Respected Leader”) was first applied to Bose in Germany in early 1942—by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion and by the German and Indian officials in the Special Bureau for India in Berlin. It is now used throughout India.[o]

Subhas Bose was born into wealth and privilege in a large Bengali family in Orissa during the middle period of the British Raj. The early recipient of an Anglocentric education, his teenage and young adult years were interspersed with academic success, religious yearning, and rebellion against authority. Sent to England at his father’s urging to take the Indian Civil Service examination, he succeeded with distinction in the vital first exam but demurred at taking the more routine final exam. He cited nationalism to be a higher calling. Returning to India in 1921 to join the nationalist movement led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, Bose at first worked with C. R. Das in Bengal. He then followed Jawaharlal Nehru to leadership in a group within the Congress which was younger, less keen on constitutional reform, and more open to socialism.[p] Bose became Congress president in 1938. After reelection in 1939, differences arose between Bose and Gandhi. The senior leadership in the Congress supported Gandhi, and Bose resigned as president and was eventually ousted from the party.[20] In July 1940, Bose was arrested by the Bengal government over a small protest, and kept housebound under a strict police watch. In mid-January 1941, he escaped from India, heading northwestward into Afghanistan.[21][22]

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